Consider: - the enormous cold spot in the universe - the CMB's axis of evil - the quantized redshifts of a million galaxies so far do not affirm the Copernican principle and instead suggest that the universe have a center near the Milky Way - the Milky Way resides in a low density void two billion light years in diameter - the superstructures of the universe including the astounding 5-billion-light-year spiral of galaxies discovered in 2015 - the fine structure that appears to have a smaller value in one direction of the universe and a larger in another - the fractal distribution of matter throughout the universe apparently observed on all scales.
"My contention is that it is clumpy on all the scales so far explored,” says University of Geneva astronomer Francesco Sylos Labini.
Yet many of the most extensive scientific observations ever made suggest otherwise, and they don't give a ringing endorsement to the Copernican principle either.
The first couple items in this list come from the highly sophisticated maps of the (shadowless) CMB (cosmic microwave background) and subsequent analysis.
Lemaître employed blatant attention getting techniques, like using the name of one of his famous competitors in the opening sentence of his papers.
Then in a later paper, Lemaître himself claims credit for this discovery by directly pointing out: "The title of my note [1927 paper] leaves no doubt about my intentions..." - Hubble and the astronomy establishment have allegedly been "cleared" from the charge of censorship, however the Royal Astronomical Society invited Lemaître to translate for publication paragraphs 1 to 72 of his 1927 paper, with paragraph 73 containing his discovery of the "Hubble" Law.
- 1918 Carl Wirtz [translation]: "..system of spiral nebulae is drifting apart by a velocity of 656 km with respect to the momentary location of the solar system as the center." - 1922 Alexander Friedmann: On the curvature of space.
that the matter in the universe is homogeneous and isotropic (The Cosmological Principle)." The big bang claim of homogeneity assumes, "that the matter in the universe is distributed uniformly on the largest scales..." and isotropy assumes it will appear the same from all locations and in all directions.Evidence for the Big Bang: NASA, Lawrence Krauss, et al., say it's the theory's predictions.* The Big Bang's Failed Predictions and Failures to Predict: (Updated Aug 3, 2017.) As documented below, trust in has been misplaced when compared to the actual astronomical observations that were made, in large part, in hopes of affirming the theory.Consider also from Ostriker & Milton, for Lemaître in "Belgium in 1925...Slipher's spectra established that the spiral nebulae are extragalactic and gave their velocities... "both of those models were [valid] solutions to Einstein's equations..." - 1926 Edwin Hubble: Extra-galactic Nebulae: "This contribution gives the results of a statistical investigation of 400 extragalactic nebulae for which Holetschek has determined total visual magnitudes." - 1927 Georges Lemaître: Two years before Hubble, Lemaître explicitly published what was later misnamed the "Hubble Law", in his paper, "A homogeneous universe of constant mass and increasing radius accounting for the radial velocity of a period of time in which the universe was static.“In fact, studies we have done show that the distribution of matter is fractal, just like a tree or a cloud.” Adds New Scientist, "If this dissenting view is correct and the Universe doesn’t become smoothed out on the very largest scales, the consequences..." for any materialist, secular cosmology are hard to overestimate.